「實證主義」與「闡釋主義」 消費者行為研究方法的兩極論

 

摘要:
消費者行為研究專家(Consumer Researchers)在「社會科學」(Social Science) 的範籌及基礎上,把研究消費者行為的方法(Approach)分為兩種,即「實證主義」(Positivism)及「闡釋主義」(Interpretivism)或稱「人本主義」(Humanism) 。自80年代中期,不少學者在西方有關期刊上對此兩項研究方向亦掀起不少爭論,爭論點是「那個主義才是研究消費者行為的正確或最佳方向?」。而事實上,直至現今,還沒有一個肯定的答案。雖然本文章的主旨並非企圖回答這問題,但希望可以通過「文獻翻閱」的形式,嘗試把兩論的「研究假設」(Assupmtion or Axiom)及「研究方法」(Methodology)作一綜合比較。所以,本文章主要內容分為三大部份:第一部份簡述「消費者研究」(Consumer Research)與「實證主義」(Positivism)及「闡釋主義」(interpretivism)之歷史關係;第二部份綜合解釋及描述兩論在「哲學思想與意識形態」(Philosophical and ideological Differences)及「研究方法」(Methodological Differences)上的主要分歧;第三部份則探討它們在近年的發展情況及趨勢。

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