逆境彈力與四種重要能力 (英文)

 

Introduction
The recent development on counseling, psychology, and education, in addition to the identification of risk factors, has been focused on studying factors which enhance buffering of adversities. For example, in the field of psychiatric research , the concept of ‘protective factors’ has been developed. According to Rutter (1985),  protective process concerns about ‘factors that counter risk, when the process involves a change of life trajectory from risk to adaptation, and when the mechanisms of protection seem to differ from those of vulnerability’. ............

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