Scientific Concepts versus Philosophical Ideas: an Essential Understanding of TCM English Translation


As Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) becomes increasingly popular in the west, English tradition of associated terms and expressions have attracted attention from various fields and different tradition approaches have been formed depending on the categories. Frequently, the translated TCM writings have tried to accommodate as many terms and concepts as possible in Western Medicine (WM), and this has resulted in certain “tradition loss”. By exploring the fundamental differences between WM and TCM, this paper aims to point out a crucial issue: medical terminologies have different connotations in two medical systems – they are scientific concepts in WM and philosophical ideas in TCM, which ought to be the essential understanding and guiding principle in carrying out TCM-English tradition. Scientific concepts are bound to be defined as precisely as possible, whereas philosophical ideas are by their nature vague, profound and only with difficulty converted precisely into another language.


  • cheapest viagra australia
  • is it legal to buy viagra from canada online
  • buy viagra greece
  • buy canada viagra
  • where to order generic viagra
  • viagra discounters
  • viagra tablets to buy
  • next day viagra delivery
  • buy female pink viagra online
  • viagra for sale in texas
  • buy viagra with bitcoins
  • best generic viagra canada wholesale community
  • cheap viagra germany
  • buy viagra online without a credit card
  • buy now viagra
  • buy pharmaceutical viagra
  • viagra without a prescription
  • canadian health care pharmacy order viagra
  • buy ing viagra in canada
  • best places to buy generic viagra
  • viagra
  • buy super viagra
  • viagra without prescription milwakee
  • cheap generic viagra canadian pharmacy
  • how to order viagra
  • buy viagra online canadian health
  • viagra order without prescription
  • viagra cheap uk
  • viagra cheap pills
  • where can i buy viagra in london over the counter
  • real viagra without prescription
  • discount generic viagra india
  • viagra on internet prescription online
  • c-pill order viagra
  • viagra online uk quick delivery
  • discount viagra sale
  • real name brand viagra
  • buy viagra uk boots
  • buy viagra uk no prescription
  • canadian non prescription viagra levitra or cialis
  • where can buy viagra
  • viagra in canada without prescription

全文下載 Acrobat PDF

Joomla Templates by